Carbonized fragments of oleander wood have been identified at the Villa Poppaea in Oplontis, likewise buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. Wear gloves when pruning oleander. It belongs to (and gives its name to) the small tribe Nerieae of subfamily Apocynoideae of the dogbane family Apocynaceae. Nerium oleander is the only species currently classified in the genus Nerium. These include 'Little Red', 'Petite White', 'Petite Pink' and 'Petite Salmon', which grow to about 8 feet (2.4 m) at maturity.[35]. Many cultivars, like 'Hawaii' or 'Turner's Carnival', are multi-colored, with brilliant striped corollas. Common Name: Evergreen Oleander 6. altogether ca. Most cultivars will grow to 8 to 12 feet tall and almost as wide. The flowers require insect visits to set seed, and seem to be pollinated through a deception mechanism. Oleander is a vigorous grower in warm subtropical regions, where it is extensively used as an ornamental plantin parks, along roadsides and in private gardens. [8], The ancient city of Volubilis in Morocco may have taken its name from the Berber name alili or oualilt for the flower.[9]. Beyond the traditional Mediterranean and subtropical range of oleander, the plant can also be cultivated in mild oceanic climates with the appropriate precautions. Oleander (Nerium oleander) is an evergreen shrub or small tree that is prized by home gardeners for its showy, funnel-shaped blooms. Nerium oleander contains xylem and phloem, which aid in transportation in the plant. In some protected areas mature plants may reach up to 20 feet tall. Pruning oleander (Nerium oleander) grown in the ground. Cultivated plants rarely produce fruits. Oleander (flowers) Nerium oleander. Container plant for sunny decks, patios and other locations around the home. New varieties are hybridized and grown on the Moody Gardens grounds, encompassing every named variety.[20]. Oh sure, if you're a full-time horticulturist, micromanaging the needs of certain finicky plants is all in a day's work. Leaves are light green and very glossy when young, before maturing to a dull dark green. Many cultivars are available in commerce with single or double flowers and in dwarf (2-4’ tall), medium (5-8’ tall) and large (9-20’ tall) plants. The scientific name for oleander in Nerium oleander. It is tolerant to both drought and inundation, but not to prolonged frost. It is most commonly grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk. The plant belongs to the family Apocynaceae (the dogbane family), one of the largest plant families. In fact, because of its hardiness, the plant is considered invasive in certain parts of the Southwest and around the Gulf Coast. Oleander plants (Nerium oleander) are among the most versatile of shrubs, with dozens of uses in southern and coastal landscapes. It grows to between 2 and 5 m in height and has long, narrow leaves almost 13 to 30 cm in length and typically grouped in threes around the stem. What Does Oleander Mean? Several compounds in nerium exhibit toxicity, and it has historically been considered a poisonous plant. [32] Hardy versions like white, red and pink oleander will tolerate occasional light frost down to −10 °C (14 °F),[16] though the leaves may be damaged. In his book Enquiries into Plants of circa 300 BC, Theophrastus described (among plants that affect the mind) a shrub he called onotheras, which modern editors render oleander; "the root of onotheras [oleander] administered in wine", he alleges, "makes the temper gentler and more cheerful". Temporary cardiac pacing will be required in many cases (usually for a few days) until the toxin is excreted. The etymological association of oleander with the bay laurel has continued into the modern day: in France the plant is known as "laurier rose",[7] while the Spanish term, "Adelfa", is the descendant of the original Ancient Greek name for both the bay laurel and the oleander, daphne, which subsequently passed into Arabic usage and thence to Spain. Some dwarf cultivars stay as low as 3 to 5 feet. Nerium oleander /ˈnɪəriəm ˈoʊliːændər/,[1] most commonly known as oleander or nerium, is a shrub or small tree belonging to subfamily Apocynoideae of the dogbane family Apocynaceae and is cultivated worldwide in temperate and subtropical areas as an ornamental and landscaping plant. 5.0 out of 5 stars 7. The slender, lance-shaped leaves have a smooth, leather-like feel. From board-certified doctors and trusted medical professionals. The plant has a leaf like that of the almond, but smaller, and the flower is red like a rose. [41], Ingestion of this plant can affect the gastrointestinal system, the heart, and the central nervous system. The word oleander appears as far back as the first century AD, when the Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides cited it as one of the terms used by the Romans for the plant. The plant is tolerant of poor soils, intense heat, salt spray, and sustained drought – although it will flower and grow more vigorously with regular water. Grows well in average, medium moisture soils in full sun to part shade. Oleander (Nerium oleander) is a fragrant flowering evergreen shrub or small tree that is in bloom from spring through fall. It’s not all bad! Isadore Dyer' Large clusters of large fragrant soft rosy pink double flowers, often with one or more petals streaked or flecked with white, are born over a long period on this reliable old favorite. Purple, pink or white five-petaled funnel-shaped flowers in clusters (terminal cymes). School of Pharmacy. The effect on the central nervous system may show itself in symptoms such as drowsiness, tremors or shaking of the muscles, seizures, collapse, and even coma that can lead to death. Hardy to U.S. … Winter hardy to USDA Zones 8-10. The ancient Greeks had several names for the plant, including rhododaphne, nerion, rhododendron and rhodon. [29][30] The culprit is a bacterium called Xylella fastidiosa, which is spread via insects (the glassy-winged sharpshooter primarily) which feed on the tissue of oleanders and spread the bacteria. [30] Several dwarf cultivars have also been developed, offering a more compact form and size for small spaces. On the East Coast of the US, it grows as far north as Virginia Beach, Virginia, while in California and Texas miles of oleander shrubs are planted on median strips. Nerium oleander is a highly toxic plant from the Apocynaceae family. [citation needed], Drugs derived from N. oleander have been investigated as a treatment for cancer, but have failed to demonstrate clinical utility. Retrieved on 2009-07-27. It is most commonly grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk. Container plants may be grown as shrubs or trained as ornamental standards. [36] Other mammals, however, such as dogs and humans, are relatively sensitive to the effects of cardiac glycosides and the clinical manifestations of "glycoside intoxication". Plants may suffer damage or die back in such marginal climates during severe winter cold but will rebound from the roots. Hardy White Oleander is a multi-stemmed evergreen shrub with an upright spreading habit of growth. It's native to northern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. Retrieved on 2009-07-27. Tough and vigorous, it produces abundant clusters of single or double flowers in shades of red, pink, white, cream, yellow or purple. Its use as a poison is well known. Xylem primarily transports water and other nutrients from the soil and phloem primarily transports sugars. Here’s what you need to know. In St. Louis, grow in containers or tubs that are overwintered indoors or as year-round houseplants. [34] The solid whites, reds and a variety of pinks are the most common. For the multi-level marketing firm Nerium International, see, Other species in tribe Nerieae: Oleander's closest relatives within Apocynaceae. An extract of oleander contains naturally occurring phytochemicals (plant produced compounds) that have been removed from the structural material of the leaves of the plant. [26] The actual flower referenced by Pliny was Azalea/Rhododendron, which is still used in Turkey to produce a hallucinogenic honey.[62]. In another mention, of "wild bay" (Daphne agria), Theophrastus appears to intend the same shrub. The Egyptians apparently called it scinphe, the North Africans rhodedaphane, and the Lucanians (a southern Italic people) icmane. Nerium oleander is in the same plant family as vinca and mandevilla, and you can see the family resemblance in the brightly colored, flared, tube-shaped flowers. Cuttings may be taken in late summer. Because oleander is extremely bitter, officials speculated that the toddlers had developed a condition caused by malnutrition, pica, which causes people to eat otherwise inedible material. [18] Because of its durability, oleander was planted prolifically on Galveston Island in Texas after the disastrous Hurricane of 1900. are less well-known in cultivation. [28] This malaise can continue for several years until the plant completely dies—there is no known cure. Leaves are usually in groups of three and narrowly lanceolate. However, container plants seem to do best in fertile soils with good drainage. It is also hazardous for animals such as sheep, horses, cattle, and other grazing animals, with as little as 100 g being enough to kill an adult horse. These plants are adaptable to a variety of soils, and they flourish in heat and full sun while also being drought-tolerant. [6] ascribed to oleander's toxicity to humans. The Nerium oleander plant -- also known as Jericho rose -- captivates many with its delicate form and showy, fragrant flowers. Each flower has five petals that spread out like the blades of a fan. "[39] In 2000, a rare instance of death from oleander poisoning occurred when two toddlers adopted from a Siberian orphanage ate the leaves from a neighbor's shrub in El Segundo, California. The "special" ingredient is from a Nerium oleander plant... do you think this could actually be for real, or is it just another way to waste my money? It produces fragrant, showy clusters of flowers from around May to October, coming in several color varieties. For the underworld in Babylonian mythology, see, "Oleander" redirects here. [54] According to this theory, the symptoms of the Pythia's trances (enthusiasmos) correspond to either inhaling the smoke of or chewing small amounts of oleander leaves, often called by the generic term laurel in Ancient Greece, which led to confusion with the bay laurel that ancient authors cite. Oleander is a plant. 79. [26][27] Fears of honey contamination with toxic oleander nectar are therefore unsubstantiated. A native of southwestern Europe and East Asia, oleander can be found growing in sunny sites in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 to 11. All fresh or dry parts of the plant are toxic. [22][23][24] This is also the case with North American cities in the Pacific Northwest like Portland,[25] Seattle, and Vancouver. Do … Among these compounds are oleandrin and oleandrigenin, known as cardiac glycosides, which are known to have a narrow therapeutic index and can be toxic when ingested. [33], Oleander flowers are showy, profuse, and often fragrant, which makes them very attractive in many contexts. It matures to an average height of 8 feet to 10 feet and an average width of 6 feet to 8 feet, depending on climate and other environmental factors. It is so widely cultivated that no precise region of origin has been identified, though it is usually associated with the Mediterranean Basin. [43], Drying of plant materials does not eliminate the toxins. [48], Nerium oleander has a history of cultivation going back millennia, especially amongst the great ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean Basin. Ingestion of larger amounts may cause nausea, vomiting, excess salivation, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and irregular heart rhythm. [58], There is an ancient account mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History,[52] who described a region in Pontus in Turkey where the honey was poisoned from bees having pollinated poisonous flowers, with the honey left as a poisonous trap for an invading army. Answers (1)ASK A DOCTOR. Some of the deaths from oleander are accidental but others are due to suicide. Plant Family: Apocynads (Apocynoideae) 2. 1. Its relatively fine texture sets it apart from other landscape plants with less refined foliage. There is a wide range of toxins and secondary compounds within oleander, and care should be taken around this plant due to its toxic nature. Some invertebrates are known to be unaffected by oleander toxins, and feed on the plants. Activated charcoal may also be administered to help absorb any remaining toxins. 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