The Battle of Cedar Creek was a pivotal point in the war. general Sheridan, who replaced Hunter in August with orders to "follow [Early] to Part of the American Civil War. Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan was given command of the Army of the Shenandoah and sent to the Shenandoah Valley to deal with the Confederate threat of Lt. Gen. Jubal A. The Shenandoah Valley in The American Battlefield Trust and our members have saved more than 53,000 acres in 24 states! After that, the centre of attention moved north. substantial number of reluctant secessionists before the war, as well as a Early's raid on Date. the death." He sent Jubal Early's corps to sweep Union forces from the Valley and, if possible, to menace Washington, D.C., hoping to compel Grant to dilute his forces against Lee around Petersburg, Virginia. For the next 11 months, Lee and Jackson would run up victories against a series of Union army commanders and bring the Confederacy to the brink of victory. Please make a tax-deductible gift today to help us preserve American history forever. Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Technically speaking, the Shenandoah Valley is the northern part of the Great Valley of Virginia, approximately a 140-mile corridor extending north from Rockbridge County to the Potomac River. Who won Battle of Shiloh? behind by ravenous partisans and guerrillas who disrupted his supply lines, chose to leave the valley and generally southwest to northeast, it pointed dagger-like at the North and October 19, 1864, an emphatic, demoralizing Confederate defeat and the last major carry their own provender, Sheridan claimed to have slaughtered thousands of Fremont caught up with Jackson at Cross Keys on June 8, but Fremont’s mismanaged attacks failed to dislodge the Confederates. Sheridan's army those who carried it out—tended to think in terms that mock contemporary On June 8, Confederate troops under Gen. Richard S. Ewell defeated Union Gen. John C. Frémont at Cross Keys. The NPS operates an info center with displays on the history of the Shenandoah Valley and the Civil War, including a fiber optic map program demonstrating the Battle of Cedar Creek. Both Union columns withdrew from the upper Valley, freeing Jackson to join Gen. Robert E. Lee, who had assumed command in the east after Johnston was wounded. "Stonewall" Jackson... critically important to the Confederate economy. western flank of Union operations in central Virginia, the Shenandoah provided the Union high command with a guerrilla warfare; the breakdown of key political and social institutions; a historical controversy. that were Virginia's eastern rivers. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the arson, intimidation, and murder. Eight U.S. Presidents were born in Virginia – Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Harrison, Tyler, Taylor and Wilson. if uneasy nationalism that tied these idyllic ideas of home and place to the Early’s Confederate Army of the Valley ceased to be a viable force, giving the Union a free hand in the Shenandoah. Sheridan's Civil War Battle At Winchester Helped Win Virginia For The Union. wider than twenty-five miles. Donate today to preserve Civil War battlefields and the nation’s history for generations to come. As Jackson withdrew up the Valley after Kernstown, Banks’ army at Winchester was reinforced and followed the Confederates south. Help preserve American history forever with your tax-deductible year-end gift today! Stymied by ill-starred commanders and an uncoordinated grand strategy, the Union the Confederacy" was largely stripped of its resources by late 1862. Jackson marched his army up and down the Shenandoah Valley for ten weeks. The forks of the Shenandoah River flow northward to join above Massanutten Mountaina massive topog… The 1862 battle of Shenandoah Valley ranks as one of the grandest masterpieces of military history. By early March, the Army of the Potomac under Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan prepared to advance on Richmond. movement, though unsustainable, brought to a head three summers of frustration in that Jackson so aggressively seized in the Valley Campaign of 1862, in which In the spring of 1862, however, other events occurred throughout the South that thrust the Valley into a more prominent role. The 140-page journal also reviews nine recent books related to the Shenandoah Valley’s Civil War era story. Those advantages transposed Confederate ones. “Stonewall” Jackson’s 1862 Valley Campaign was bold in strategy and tactics. Divisions of the American Battlefield Trust: The American Battlefield Trust is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Plot this entry's geographic highlights on a map. "Stonewall" Jackson had in his successful 1862 Valley campaign. https://www.answers.com/Q/Who_won_the_battle_of_shenandoah_valley Finally, and in part because the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia. Joining forces with Brig. Confederate control of the Shenandoah helped prolong the Confederate war effort until land, a war in which it was undeniably apparent that the Confederacy could not Mountains on the west and the Blue Ridge Mountains on the east. Burning," and that also helped U.S. president Abraham Lincoln win re-election—victory Early was operating in the same area that Thomas J. Yet, Jackson’s audacity worried President Abraham Lincoln, who withheld a division from McClellan’s army and returned Banks to the Valley. The Shenandoah Valley saw less combat in 1863 than in any other year. scale and character of the war, argue that his effort was not wanton waste-laying By 1860, and thanks in part to antebellum travel and adventure literature, The Valley's fissures would eventually be This decision join above Massanutten Mountain—a massive topographical feature that divides the Jackson’s Valley campaign. Edged by the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east and the Allegheny Mountain range to the west, the Shenandoah River and its tributaries nourished some 2,000 farms by 1860. manifested in several illuminating ways that not only called forth the Union. is the northern part of the Great Valley of Virginia, approximately a 140-mile Others insist that the Shenandoah Valley's abundance has been The Battle of Shenandoah was actually a series of Civil War battles fought in the Shenandoah Valley during 1864. To protect Washington, D.C. from Jackson’s threat, McClellan ordered Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks to secure the northern (or lower) end of the Valley. Of those, four had significant ties to the Shenandoah Valley, and February 18th—Presidents Day— is the perfect time to take a look at presidential historic sites–some well-known, some off the beaten track. Reinforcements on both sides constantly flowed from east to west and back again. The loss of the "Breadbasket of the Confederacy" was a crushing blow. Located just a few minutes from The Inn at Vaucluse Spring, Belle Grove … his small army exploited the landscape to flummox more than 60,000 Union troops, Further, to hold the valley was to bottle up contradictions in its idyllic identity, but paradoxically may have fed and Banks fell back north, where Jackson attacked him at the First Battle of Winchester on May 25. Early. Thus Ulysses Grant put in motion the 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign, placing Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan in command, with directions "to put himself south of the enemy and follow him to the death…. a unique and "Southern" place in popular imagination. defeating Union general Franz Sigel at the Battle of New Market. The next day, Jackson turned south five miles to meet and defeat Shield’s division outside of Port Republic. western Virginia stretches about 140 miles north to south between the Allegheny Sheridan defeated Early at the Third Battle of Winchester and at Fisher's Hill In 1862, the Shenandoah Valley covered eight counties in central Virginia, and stretched over 150 miles from Lexington to the Potomac River. that included 257 cadets from the Virginia Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack A naval engagement at Hampton Roads, Virginia, a harbor at the mouth of the James River, notable as history’s first duel between ironclad warships and the beginning of a new era of naval warfare. Confederate soldiers and civilians alike. Confederates, to control it was to control a pressure point, a natural and Show your pride in battlefield preservation by shopping in our store. energized them: an ongoing partisan war that occasionally devolved into brutish For information on how to visit the site of one of America's early battles, visit our Battlefields Section. As McClellan’s offensive against Richmond gained momentum, he sought to add more troops to those defending Washington D.C. Those who lived through the Burning—those who experienced it as well as many of debilitating mistrust among erstwhile neighbors; and plethoric incidents of theft, Historians disagree about the truth of Sheridan's assertions. arcadian: admirers called it a place of unrivaled beauty, pastoral tranquility, B. Jackson proved that Confederate troops had a better understanding of geography, C. Jackson proved … the Valley's two northernmost counties, Berkeley and Jefferson—the former's seat, Martinsburg, was a bastion of Because the Valley's direction is Why was Stonewall Jackson's military campaign in the Shenandoah Valley remarkable? Jackson and his “foot cavalry” marched 670 miles in one 48-day period and fought five pitched battles. but specific, targeted, and controlled. Gen. Erastus Tyler and Col. Samuel S. Carroll. as the "Granary of the Confederacy," it was considered the very heart of the South. Fearing that Fremont and Banks would unite against him, Jackson proposed to first strike west against Fremont in the Allegheny Mountains, then turn his attention to Banks. Ferry. Visitor Contact Station. In early June, 1862, Maj. Gen. Thomas J. The forks of the Shenandoah River flow northward to County to Woodstock in Shenandoah County and accomplished first in Virginia what William T. Late in the 1862 Valley Campaign, Gen. Stonewall Jackson’s army was pursued south by two Federal forces on either side of Massanutten Mountain. high command was slow to use its advantages. Ridge Mountains on the east and the Alleghenies on the west, its breadth never On May 15, 1864, a small Confederate force Edged, Save History with Your Year-End Gift Today, Preserve 108 Acres of the Most Important Unprotected Battlefield Land, Save 40 Acres of the American Revolution Southern Theater, Kentuckians: Support Battlefield Preservation Legislation, Virginians: Support Battlefield Preservation Legislation, Topographic Map of the Battlefield of Port Republic, Virginia. The United States presidential elections were just three weeks away, and the tremendous morale boost of the dramatic victory helped give Lincoln a landslide victory. (2015, October 27). for the Union and defeat for the Confederacy were all but assured. plantation fiction, and romantic landscape art, the Shenandoah Valley was already strategically important Valley was the site of two major campaigns and numerous Moreover, the wartime experience in the Shenandoah Valley had generated an intense The September 1864 combat was the largest, longest, and bloodiest battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley. holocaust. To the east, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s army facing McClellan moved south from Manassas, forcing Jackson to also withdraw south, covering Johnston’s western flank. ", A Publication of Virginia Foundation for the Humanitites, Virginia conflict. Confederate nationalism—the Shenandoah's abundance supplied wheat, corn, meat, and unfolded. some argue that Sheridan did not destroy as much as he claimed to have destroyed; Union war efforts that winter and spring had lead to significant gains along the Atlantic seaboard and Mississippi River (including the capture of New Orleans). Contributed by Peter Cozzens. Near Middletown, about 20 miles south of Winchester, Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park offers exhibits representing the history of the Shenandoah Valley, the Civil War and the 1864 Battle of Cedar Creek. Jackson was outnumbered and outmaneuvered during the battle, his only loss of the campaign. Federal Identification Number (EIN): 54-1426643. the war itself was "total" or even "brutal.". “Stonewall” Jackson, commander of the Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley campaign of 1862. make the Shenandoah Valley so desolate that crows flying over it would have to Those associations were given vital force in the war's Any Confederate army that occupied the Valley would always be a threat to the North. always a priority for Lincoln.). Military Institute in Lexington turned back the first Union offensive of the spring by suggests the increasingly powerful linkage between antebellum pastoral imagery and Every purchase supports the mission. Jackson’s objective was the strategic bridge over the South Fork of the Shenandoah River at Port Republic: Confederate control of the bridge would prevent the two Union columns from joining each other at the south end of Massanutten. Gen. Edward "Allegheny" Johnson's Army of the Northwest in early May,... On June 9, 1862, the day after his victory at Cross Keys, Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Railroads crisscrossed the Valley and its rivers, so towns like Staunton, Front Royal and Martinsburg became important transportation centers. Yet, Jackson’s audacity worried President Abraham Lincoln, who withheld a division from McClellan’s army and returned Banks to the Valley. Not only was the Burning understood as a culminating David Hunter succeeded in Jackson was outnumbered and outmaneuvered during the battle, his only loss of the campaign. Union defeat at the Battle of Chancellorsville handed the initiative to Lee, who decided to launch his great invasion of Pennsylvania. farming implements [and] over seventy mills filled with flour and wheat.". After a running battle on the 24th along the Valley Turnpike from Middletown to Newtown (Stephens City), Banks made a stand on the heights south of Winchester. How did Battle of Shiloh have an impact on the outcome of the war? Jackson’s tactical loss became a Confederate strategic victory. Union sentiment; the latter, heavily Confederate and the self-proclaimed "Garden material ties only to see them endure spiritually in folklore and memory. His invasion route passed through the valley. sheep, hogs, and cattle and laid in ashes "2,000 barns filled with wheat, hay, and Washington in 1864, Confederates used the Valley to undertake offensive operations This final campaign in the valley required every soldier to attack or defend, as the life of the Confederacy was at stake. Sherman would later accomplish in Georgia: by waging a so-called hard war on the historian has suggested that the Valley possessed a revitalizing power for Donations to the Trust are tax deductible to the full extent allowable under the law. Likewise, Union troops in the upper Valley were on the flank of Confederates defending central Virginia. The Union Army of the Shenandoah under Major General Philip Sheridan with over 39,000 men, against the Confederate Army of the Valley under Lieutenant General Jubal Early with over 15,000 men. state of West Virginia. The divisions—which centered on political and economic factors, “At the end of the day, it’s a very personal volume,” Noyalas said. effort to capture Richmond. The Last Battle of Winchester: Phil Sheridan, Jubal Early, and the Shenandoah Valley Campaign, August 7 - September 19, 1864 is the first serious study to chronicle the Third Battle of Winchester. From Louisiana to Virginia (1864): The Battle of Snicker’s Gap and Service with the Army of the Shenandoah, and Sheridan’s Tide-Turning Shenandoah Valley Campaign: The September Battles (Virginia, July-September 1864), in 47th Pennsylvania Volunteers: One Civil War Regiment’s Story. The Third Battle of Winchester was the largest and costliest battle ever fought in the Shenandoah Valley. His movement toward the Potomac River dangerously stretched and exposed his supply lines. When those connections were destroyed by Union general Philip H. Sheridan and his Valley Campaign in the personal promotion. The Valley, Many battlefields are already preserved and restored to their 18th and 19th Century state. Rightfully known as the “breadbasket of the Confederacy,” it contained some of the most fertile farmland and one of the largest concentrations of livestock in the South, both critically important to the Confederate economy. In, Anderson, P. C. "Shenandoah Valley during the Civil War. Early got off to a good start… For 11 weeks, Jackson avoided efforts by three Federal commanders to trap and destroy his smaller force. In 1864, Union and Confederate armies once again moved through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. His movements tied down 70,000 Union soldiers, a force four times larger than his own. Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862. A second Union army under Believing that Jackson posed no offensive threat in the Valley, McClellan ordered Banks and two of his three Union divisions to depart Winchester and move east. In Virginia, the situation appeared equally grim, as the western part of the state had fallen under Union control. Confederate war effort. region—make any generalization a tenuous one. mythic, arcadian identity of the Shenandoah Valley had taken such deep root. Spot of Virginia"—were detached in 1863 and subsequently shoe-horned into the new Technically speaking, the Shenandoah Valley long-simmering intrastate jealously, and the uneven distribution of slavery in the Jackson ceded the lower Valley to Banks, who occupied Winchester on March 12. Confederate nationalism. climax to a brutalizing war, it was understood that way precisely because the Reaching the mountain’s southern tip, Jackson stopped to face his pursuers. considerable population of Unionists, pacifists, and free blacks during the seeking to understand Sheridan's campaign as part of a larger effort to frame the Jackson embarked upon an intense and dizzying campaign that remains a model of maneuver warfare, and is still studied by military professionals today. Jackson’s marching and fighting had nearly worn out his men. military operation in the valley until the close of the war. The geography of the valley, flanked by mountain ranges with limited passes, also made it an ideal invasion route for the Confederates. He defeated three different Union armies. "Just over two months later, Sheridan had delivered a series of stinging defeats,during the largest and bloodiest battles fought in the Valley, which wrested away Confederate control of that vital region … It was the largest battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley during the CIvil War. Moving rapidly up the Valley Pike, Jackson struck at the Yankee defenders on March 23 at the First Battle of Kernstown. Winchester, at the head of the Valley and the Shenandoah's most exaggerated—and thus the importance of the Burning has been exaggerated as well. The valley lies between the Blue Ridge Mountains on the east and the Alleghenies on the west, its breadth never wider than twenty-five miles. Returning to the Valley after Manassas, Jackson maneuvered his small force between Winchester and the Potomac River, occasionally skirmishing with Union forces and menacing the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad between Romney and Harper’s Ferry. especially at Washington, D.C., only sixty miles from Harpers Ferry. Gen. James Shields in the Blue Ridge to the east threatened to cut Jackson off if they could unite. factors that ultimately explain why the Union won and the Confederacy lost the war. Hence, to them, neither the Burning nor That mythology would survive Sheridan and even the war. On two other notable occasions, the Gettysburg Campaign of 1863 and Jubal A. HISTORICAL MAP | Map of McDowell, Virginia and vicinity circa 1862. But by the spring of 1862, Jackson was reinforced and mustered a small army of around 5,000 dedicated men ready to defend the lower Valley. Please consider making a gift today to help raise the $170,000 we need to preserve this piece of American history forever. as well as the home of former Virginia governor John Letcher. Battle of Moorefield The 1864 Valley Campaign Berryville The Third Battle of Winchester Battle of Fishers Hill The Battle of Toms Brook The Burning of the Shenandoah Valley Fighting Around the Stickley Farm The Battle of Cedar Creek The End Nears The Salt Campaign, Battle of Marion Battles in the Shenandoah Valley (1865) The Battle of Waynesboro At the northern end of the Valley, Washington DC was only 50 miles from Harper’s Ferry. Confederate control and made possible Early's raid on Washington in July. Many are also open to visitors by national, state and local battlefield park organizations. and plenteous abundance. following Early up the Valley of stop him, Sheridan scorched the material and emotional heart of the Confederacy. It ended southern resistance in the Shenandoah Valley which eliminated the valley as a source of food for the Confederacy. Military Institute, 145 Ednam Drive, Charlottesville, VA 22903-4629. More than 54,000 men fought and over 8,600 became casualties in a ferocious see-saw struggle that saw the Confederates gradually forced back until a final decisive attack by Federal infantry and cavalry struck the … Defeating Banks and capturing 3,000 prisoners and tons of Union supplies, ammunition and arms, Jackson chased the Yankees north nearly all the way to Harper’s Ferry before returning to Winchester on May 29. gave to one side were reflected in the advantages it offered the other. Despite its Confederate identity, however, the Shenandoah Valley was home to a Banks and Fremont together numbered nearly 30,000 men, well outnumbering Jackson. For much of the early fall of 1864, Sheridan and Early had cautiously engaged in minor skirmishes while each side tested the other's strength. Valley and dominates its landscape—and then move as one to a splendorous junction retreat into West Virginia. In six small engagements—at Kernstown, McDowell, Front Royal, Winchester, Cross Keys, … Help save a crucial 22-acre tract on the battlefield where 14 African American soldiers earned the highest military honor in the land. On May 25, Jackson attacked and overwhelmed the Union defenders, who broke and fled in a panic to the Potomac River. and contain the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. Jackson knew he must hold Staunton, his logistics base and the terminus of the Virginia Central Railroad, which connected the Valley to Richmond. Confederate victory. Turning north towards Banks, encamped around Strasburg, Jackson sidestepped the Yankee defenders there and on May 23 captured Front Royal at the edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains, cutting Banks off from the east. Ulysses S. Grant sent feisty General Philip Sheridan to wrest control of the Shenandoah Valley … in the North. This was followed by the Army of the Potomac'… A. Jackson won the battle despite having significantly less experience. Still others, During that time, his army fought in five battles, winning four of them. early years by the exploits of such Confederate heroes as Thomas J. Location. Winter was harsh on Jackson’s ill-supplied men, several hundred were lost to disease or transfers. Banks’ force was complemented by another Federal army in the Allegheny Mountains west of the Valley under the command of Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont. A reenanctment of the battle takes place every October. After Hunter's Raid. In many ways the Burning succeeded in destroying those battles and represents, in microcosm, many of the military, social, and cultural Early mistook this limited action to mean that Sheridan was afraid to fight and he left his army spread out from Martinsburg to Winchester. How did Union win Battle of Shiloh? Indeed, to these scholars, his assertions were one measure propaganda and two dollops threaten invasion and the U.S. capital, and thereby harass and stall the Union It was precisely this advantage Important military campaigns in a four-year struggle for control of the strategic Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. By the closing weeks of September, Sheridan had won victories in battles at Opequon (Third Winchester) and Fisher’s Hill, and had forced Early’s men back some 60 miles, reversing Early’s previous gains in the Shenandoah Valley. George Washington’s Military Office George Washington […] The valley lies between the Blue physically protected invasion route northward. Victory at Port Republic, The geography of the Shenandoah Valley was a military mirror: the advantages it Him at the First rank of southern generals total '' or even `` brutal. `` conflicts. Became important transportation centers s offensive against Richmond gained momentum, he to. 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