Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. Most of these technologies originally had the ability to communicate using the Latin script only, and some of them still do not have the Arabic script as an optional feature. Arabic is a Semitic language based on tri-literal roots. Ahmad al-Jallad proposes that there were at least two considerably distinct types of Arabic on the eve of the conquests: Northern and Central (Al-Jallad 2009). Learn the most important words in Arabic Here you can find the translation of the 50 most important words and expressions into Arabic. An Arabic vocabulary size test. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children. language translate: لُغة, لُغة. sharibtu 'I drank', qultu 'I said', takallamtu 'I spoke', where the subpattern used to signal the past tense may change but the suffix -tu is always used). In Moroccan Arabic, on the other hand, short /u/ triggers labialization of nearby consonants (especially velar consonants and uvular consonants), and then short /a i u/ all merge into /ə/, which is deleted in many contexts. Many other languages, especially in Muslim lands, are saturated with Arabic words. Arabic speakers often improve their familiarity with other dialects via music or film. The Quran introduces to poetry the idea of abandoning order and scattering narratives throughout the text. One example is the emphatic consonants, which are pharyngealized in modern pronunciations but may have been velarized in the eighth century and glottalized in Proto-Semitic.[77]. There are various conflicting motivations involved, which leads to multiple systems. During the Middle Ages, Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. [89], In modern times, the educated upper classes in the Arab world have taken a nearly opposite view. As a result, some Egyptians pushed for an Egyptianization of the Arabic language in which the formal Arabic and the colloquial Arabic would be combined into one language and the Latin alphabet would be used. Other systems of transliteration exist, such as using dots or capitalization to represent the "emphatic" counterparts of certain consonants. The medieval Arabs actually termed their language lughat al-ḍād 'the language of the Ḍād' (the name of the letter used for this sound), since they thought the sound was unique to their language. These words inturn, loaned to English. This can seem a really big and frightening number to someone wanting to start learning Arabic, but here's the good news: you only need to know roughly 5% of the total words to be fluent in Arabic. The variation in individual "accents" of MSA speakers tends to mirror corresponding variations in the colloquial speech of the speakers in question, but with the distinguishing characteristics moderated somewhat. They have also mostly lost the indefinite "nunation" and the internal passive. In addition, MSA has borrowed or coined many terms for concepts that did not exist in Quranic times, and MSA continues to evolve. i. Arabic elements in Persian. Massignon's attempt at Romanization failed as the Academy and population viewed the proposal as an attempt from the Western world to take over their country. Both varieties can be both written and spoken, although the colloquial varieties are rarely written down and the formal variety is spoken mostly in formal circumstances, e.g., in radio and TV broadcasts, formal lectures, parliamentary discussions and to some extent between speakers of different colloquial dialects. In some places of Maghreb it can be also pronounced as [t͡s]. [40] In the case of Arabic, educated Arabs of any nationality can be assumed to speak both their school-taught Standard Arabic as well as their native, mutually unintelligible "dialects";[41][42][43][44][45] these dialects linguistically constitute separate languages which may have dialects of their own. 2014. The vowels /u/ and /ɪ/ are often affected somewhat in emphatic neighborhoods as well, with generally more back or centralized allophones, but the differences are less great than for the low vowels. CVVC and CVCC, are superheavy syllables. The basic rules for Modern Standard Arabic are: Examples:kitāb(un) 'book', kā-ti-b(un) 'writer', mak-ta-b(un) 'desk', ma-kā-ti-b(u) 'desks', mak-ta-ba-tun 'library' (but mak-ta-ba(-tun) 'library' in short pronunciation), ka-ta-bū (Modern Standard Arabic) 'they wrote' = ka-ta-bu (dialect), ka-ta-bū-h(u) (Modern Standard Arabic) 'they wrote it' = ka-ta-bū (dialect), ka-ta-ba-tā (Modern Standard Arabic) 'they (dual, fem) wrote', ka-tab-tu (Modern Standard Arabic) 'I wrote' = ka-tabt (short form or dialect). In English language, a word is a single entity. The differentiation of pronunciation of colloquial dialects is the influence from other languages previously spoken and some still presently spoken in the regions, such as Coptic in Egypt, Berber, Punic, or Phoenician in North Africa, Himyaritic, Modern South Arabian, and Old South Arabian in Yemen and Oman, and Aramaic and Canaanite languages (including Phoenician) in the Levant and Mesopotamia. It wasn't until late in the 15th century that the Moors were expelled. ), or to coin new words using forms within existing roots (استماتة‎ istimātah 'apoptosis', using the root موت‎ m/w/t 'death' put into the Xth form, or جامعة‎ jāmiʻah 'university', based on جمع‎ jamaʻa 'to gather, unite'; جمهورية‎ jumhūriyyah 'republic', based on جمهور‎ jumhūr 'multitude'). The last two share important isoglosses with later forms of Arabic, leading scholars to theorize that Safaitic and Hismaic are in fact early forms of Arabic and that they should be considered Old Arabic. [36] This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. This distinction exists primarily among Western linguists; Arabic speakers themselves generally do not distinguish between Modern Standard Arabic and Classical Arabic, but rather refer to both as al-ʿarabiyyatu l-fuṣḥā (اَلعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ,[8] "the purest Arabic") or simply al-fuṣḥā (اَلْفُصْحَىٰ). It is clear that the orthography of the Qur'an was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi. Introduction to Arabic Arabic is usually ranked among the top six of the world's major languages. Final long vowels are often shortened, merging with any short vowels that remain. Poetry after the Quran began possessing this element of tradition by including ambiguity and background information to be required to understand the meaning.[59]. Linguists still differ as to the best classification of Semitic language sub-groups. Poetry's imperfections prove his points that they cannot be compared with the fluency the Quran holds. In surface pronunciation, every vowel must be preceded by a consonant (which may include the glottal stop [ʔ]). Finally signs known as Tashkil were used for short vowels known as harakat and other uses such as final postnasalized or long vowels. The most active are in Damascus and Cairo. Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government and the media. It belongs to the Semitic group of languages which also includes Hebrew and Amharic, the main language of Ethiopia. [61] The vowel /a/ varies towards [ə(ː)] too. Arabic was THE language of science for ONE 1000 years. For example, Table 2.4 shows some single Arabic words and their equivalent English translations. The past and non-past differ in the form of the stem (e.g., past كَتَبـkatab- vs. non-past ـكْتُبـ -ktub-), and also use completely different sets of affixes for indicating person, number and gender: In the past, the person, number and gender are fused into a single suffixal morpheme, while in the non-past, a combination of prefixes (primarily encoding person) and suffixes (primarily encoding gender and number) are used. "[90], This article is about the general language (macrolanguage). Although Classical Arabic was a unitary language and is now used in Quran, its pronunciation varies somewhat from country to country and from region to region within a country. Although Spain was the principal point of the Arab impact, Arab influences also spread to Europe from Sicily after its conquest and Arabization. Due to Arabic’s position as the liturgical language of Islam we will see that many words which have transferred solely to other languages in a religious context can have a more mundane, day-to-day meaning in the original Arabic. [4] As a result, these derived stems are part of the system of derivational morphology, not part of the inflectional system. Arabic fraught with hundreds of foreign words since pre-Islamic times. Writers studied the unique structure and format of the Quran in order to identify and apply the figurative devices and their impact on the reader. Saraiki, Sindhi, Somali, Sylheti, Swahili, Tagalog, Tigrinya, Turkish, Turkmen, Urdu, Uyghur, Uzbek, Visayan and Wolof, as well as other languages in countries where these languages are spoken. This type of variation is characteristic of the diglossia that exists throughout the Arabic-speaking world. Examples of the different verbs formed from the root كتب k-t-b 'write' (using حمر ḥ-m-r 'red' for Form IX, which is limited to colors and physical defects): Form II is sometimes used to create transitive denominative verbs (verbs built from nouns); Form V is the equivalent used for intransitive denominatives. Courteous phrases Being polite is just as […] Modern Standard Arabic has six pure vowels (while most modern dialects have eight pure vowels which includes the long vowels /eː oː/), with short /a i u/ and corresponding long vowels /aː iː uː/. [49] This is an apt comparison in a number of ways. Its influence on Spanish since the time of the Moors is well known, but what's less well known is how many commonly used English words were actually taken from Arabic. Although Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is a unitary language, its pronunciation varies somewhat from country to country and from region to region within a country. [4] It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Although many of these words are rarely used today, some even obsolete, they nevertheless are found in English dictionaries. The study of Old Testament Hebrew has been enriched by the study of other Semitic languages—Akkadian and Ugaritic among the ancient languages, and Arabic, which preserves many archaic features. It bears a strong relationship to vowel length. From a single root k-t-b, numerous words can be formed by applying different patterns: Nouns in Literary Arabic have three grammatical cases (nominative, accusative, and genitive [also used when the noun is governed by a preposition]); three numbers (singular, dual and plural); two genders (masculine and feminine); and three "states" (indefinite, definite, and construct). Arabic is also the language of Quran and we should understand that Quran is an Arabic phenomenon.The words and sentence constructions Allah chose to deliver the message is immaculate and prestine. Arabic shows the fullest development of typical Semitic word structure. The phoneme /d͡ʒ/ is represented by the Arabic letter jīm (ج‎) and has many standard pronunciations. Actually this is an interesting question for somebody who doesn’t know Arabic, in short: You can say that Arabic has (according to different Arabic sources listed at the end) between 90 million words and 500 million words. /θ/ (ث‎) can be pronounced as [s]. Macdonald (ed), The development of Arabic as a written language (Supplement to the Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 40). (A notable exception is the sounds /t/ vs. /tˤ/ in Moroccan Arabic, because the former is pronounced as an affricate [t͡s] but the latter is not.). Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words, many of which relate to agriculture and related activities,[9][full citation needed] as a legacy of the Emirate of Sicily from the early-9th to late-11th centuries, while Maltese language is a Semitic language developed from a dialect of Arabic and written in the Latin alphabet. Clusters containing more than two consonants do not occur in the language. Arabic language is very rich language .. it has about 1.429 40.000 40.000 810.000 words ... [correction: there is no language in the world with more than 250,000 words] Arabic Languages has … How many words do you need to learn to be fluent in German? Another example: Many colloquial varieties are known for a type of vowel harmony in which the presence of an "emphatic consonant" triggers backed allophones of nearby vowels (especially of the low vowels /aː/, which are backed to [ɑ(ː)] in these circumstances and very often fronted to [æ(ː)] in all other circumstances). Transcription is a broad IPA transcription, so minor differences were ignored for easier comparison. The influence of Arabic has been most important in Islamic countries, because it is the language of the Islamic sacred book, the Quran. Colloquial or dialectal Arabic refers to the many national or regional varieties which constitute the everyday spoken language and evolved from Classical Arabic. [46] When educated Arabs of different dialects engage in conversation (for example, a Moroccan speaking with a Lebanese), many speakers code-switch back and forth between the dialectal and standard varieties of the language, sometimes even within the same sentence. For verbs, a given root can occur in many different derived verb stems (of which there are about fifteen), each with one or more characteristic meanings and each with its own templates for the past and non-past stems, active and passive participles, and verbal noun. In Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested. Native: 10,000-30,000+ words. Total word counts vary widely between world languages, making it difficult to say how many words native speakers know in general. Even speakers from Cairo, whose native Egyptian Arabic has [ɡ], normally use [ɡ] when speaking MSA. 57% of Pushto, 42% of Urdu and 30% of Persian can be traced back to the language of the Qur‘an. Some Muslims present a monogenesis of languages and claim that the Arabic language was the language revealed by God for the benefit of mankind and the original language as a prototype system of symbolic communication, based upon its system of triconsonantal roots, spoken by man from which all other languages were derived, having first been corrupted. As we discussed above, estimates of how many words are known by the average native English speaker vary from 10,000 to 65,000+. Early in the expansion of Arabic, the separate emphatic phonemes [ɮˤ] and [ðˤ] coalesced into a single phoneme [ðˤ]. How many words do you need to speak Arabic? This can seem a really big and frightening number to someone wanting to start learning Arabic, but here's the good news: you only need to know roughly 5% of the total words to be fluent in Arabic. The elongations and accents present in the Quran create a harmonious flow within the writing. The following changes occur: This is the pronunciation used by speakers of Modern Standard Arabic in extemporaneous speech, i.e. Scholars named its variant dialects after the towns where the inscriptions were discovered (Dadanitic, Taymanitic, Hismaic, Safaitic). So, whether we count inflected forms will have a huge influence on final counts. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia and in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic words entered the English language through a number of ways. It is also believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages (non-Central Semitic languages) were also spoken in southern Arabia at this time. Arabic is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE. In most MSA accents, emphatic coloring of vowels is limited to vowels immediately adjacent to a triggering consonant, although in some it spreads a bit farther: e.g., وقت‎ waqt [wɑqt] 'time'; وطن‎ waṭan [wɑtˤɑn] 'homeland'; وسط المدينة‎ wasṭ al-madīnah [wæstˤ ɑl mædiːnɐ] 'downtown' (sometimes [wɑstˤ ɑl mædiːnæ] or similar). [77] Its emphatic counterpart /ɬˠ~ɮˤ/ was considered by Arabs to be the most unusual sound in Arabic (Hence the Classical Arabic's appellation لُغَةُ ٱلضَّادِ‎ lughat al-ḍād or "language of the ḍād"); for most modern dialects, it has become an emphatic stop /dˤ/ with loss of the laterality[77] or with complete loss of any pharyngealization or velarization, /d/. It is important in descriptions of "Arabic" phonology to distinguish between pronunciation of a given colloquial (spoken) dialect and the pronunciation of MSA by these same speakers. If you are about to travel … This is the apparent source of the alif maqṣūrah 'restricted alif' where a final /-aja/ is reconstructed: a letter that would normally indicate /j/ or some similar high-vowel sound, but is taken in this context to be a logical variant of alif and represent the sound /aː/. This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 21:25. German is obvious; it is a trifle to coin a new compound word for a new situation. They are conjugated in two major paradigms (past and non-past); two voices (active and passive); and six moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive, jussive, shorter energetic and longer energetic), the fifth and sixth moods, the energetics, exist only in Classical Arabic but not in MSA. The Muslim empire ruled the world for a 1000 years. The composition is often abstract, but sometimes the writing is shaped into an actual form such as that of an animal. As the language of the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, it is also widely used throughout the Muslim world. People began studying and applying the unique styles they learned from the Quran to not only their own writing, but also their culture. This is similar to the process by which, for example, the English gerund "meeting" (similar to a verbal noun) has turned into a noun referring to a particular type of social, often work-related event where people gather together to have a "discussion" (another lexicalized verbal noun). The definition of both "emphatic" and "neighborhood" vary in ways that reflect (to some extent) corresponding variations in the spoken dialects. Alcohol. The oldest surviving papyrus in Arabic dates to 643 CE, and it uses dots to produce the modern 28-letter Arabic alphabet. In English language, a word is a single entity. The writer al-Khattabi explains how culture is a required element to create a sense of art in work as well as understand it. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? Harmony is also present in the sound of the Quran. The associated participles and verbal nouns of a verb are the primary means of forming new lexical nouns in Arabic. And Arabic was the language of the Muslim Empire when it came to science and institutes. Even today, many Spanish place names retain Arabic roots. See for instance Wilhelm Eilers, "Iranisches Lehngut im Arabischen". This process of using Arabic roots, especially in Kurdish and Persian, to translate foreign concepts continued through to the 18th and 19th centuries, when swaths of Arab-inhabited lands were under Ottoman rule. The Hadith were passed down from generation to generation and this tradition became a large resource for understanding the context. [4] However, most arguments for a single ANA language or language family were based on the shape of the definite article, a prefixed h-. In Moroccan Arabic, /i u/ also have emphatic allophones [e~ɛ] and [o~ɔ], respectively. I'll send you often songs, news and texts from brazilian artists and websites. (In fact, it also exists in a few other minority Semitic languages, e.g., Mehri.). [56][58] In particular, the older Egyptian generations believed that the Arabic alphabet had strong connections to Arab values and history, due to the long history of the Arabic alphabet (Shrivtiel, 189) in Muslim societies. The English word alcohol comes from the Arabic word al kohl. qaraʼtu 'I read', akaltu 'I ate', dhahabtu 'I went', although other patterns are possible (e.g. The sociolinguistic situation of Arabic in modern times provides a prime example of the linguistic phenomenon of diglossia, which is the normal use of two separate varieties of the same language, usually in different social situations. Whether writing or typing in Arabic, the letters are in cursive and … Academy of the Arabic Language is the name of a number of language-regulation bodies formed in the Arab League. 5 letter Words made out of arabic One such source is found at Comparison between number of words in languages around the world, Twitter, 18 December 2013. [33] This gave rise to what Western scholars call Modern Standard Arabic. Other systems (e.g. Generally, the consonants triggering "emphatic" allophones are the pharyngealized consonants /tˤ dˤ sˤ ðˤ/; /q/; and /r/, if not followed immediately by /i(ː)/. [81] In some transcription systems, emphasis is shown by capitalizing the letter, for example, /dˤ/ is written ⟨D⟩; in others the letter is underlined or has a dot below it, for example, ⟨ḍ⟩. When actually pronounced, one of three things happens: Word stress is not phonemically contrastive in Standard Arabic. For example, Table 2.4 shows some single Arabic words and their equivalent English translations. Though Arabic may seem quite alien to those whose native language derives from the Indo-European language branch, a great many Arabic words are part of the lexicon of Western languages due to Arabic influence on Europe during the medieval period. The Beirut newspaper La Syrie pushed for the change from Arabic script to Latin letters in 1922. The ISO assigns language codes to thirty varieties of Arabic, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, also referred to as Literary Arabic, which is modernized Classic… Does that make Spanish richer in word count? An interesting feature of the writing system of the Quran (and hence of Classical Arabic) is that it contains certain features of Muhammad's native dialect of Mecca, corrected through diacritics into the forms of standard Classical Arabic. An Arabic vocabulary size test. What does contingent mean in real estate? When speaking extemporaneously (i.e. Other verbs meaning 'I Xed' will typically have the same pattern but with different consonants, e.g. For example, [g] is considered a native phoneme in most Arabic dialects except in Levantine dialects like Syrian or Lebanese where ج‎ is pronounced [ʒ] and ق‎ is pronounced [ʔ]. The Arabic alphabet derives from the Aramaic through Nabatean, to which it bears a loose resemblance like that of Coptic or Cyrillic scripts to Greek script. There are two varieties, independent pronouns and enclitics. Rebecca L. Torstrick and Elizabeth Faier. mutually)', For a list of words relating to Arabic, see the, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation (, The conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation (, The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms (e.g., a present tense formed by doubling the middle root, a perfect formed by infixing a, Certain grammatical constructions of CA that have no counterpart in any modern vernacular dialect (e.g., the. Because the Quran is written in Arabic and all Islamic terms are in Arabic, millions[citation needed] of Muslims (both Arab and non-Arab) study the language. After Khalil ibn Ahmad al Farahidi finally fixed the Arabic script around 786, many styles were developed, both for the writing down of the Quran and other books, and for inscriptions on monuments as decoration. By then, literally thousands of Arabic words had become part of Spanish. Within the non-peninsula varieties, the largest difference is between the non-Egyptian North African dialects (especially Moroccan Arabic) and the others. ANA, despite its name, was considered a very distinct language, and mutually unintelligible, from "Arabic". How many words do you need to speak Arabic? The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Even at the time of Muhammed and before, other dialects existed with many more changes, including the loss of most glottal stops, the loss of case endings, the reduction of the diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/ into monophthongs /eː, oː/, etc. [88], With the sole example of Medieval linguist Abu Hayyan al-Gharnati – who, while a scholar of the Arabic language, was not ethnically Arab – Medieval scholars of the Arabic language made no efforts at studying comparative linguistics, considering all other languages inferior. The Quran uses constant metaphors of blindness and deafness to imply unbelief. The cases of singular nouns (other than those that end in long ā) are indicated by suffixed short vowels (/-u/ for nominative, /-a/ for accusative, /-i/ for genitive). The syllable types with two morae (units of time), i.e. Because the structure of the Quran made it difficult for a clear timeline to be seen, Hadith were the main source of chronological order. English translations the Modern pronunciation of Modern Standard Arabic is one of three happens. ” ( foreigners ) when declined in plural transcription, so minor differences were ignored for easier comparison to! Plus /ə/ is sometimes interpreted as an underlying phoneme /ŭ/. ) use Latin script is Maltese of which. Like pronouncing all words as if they were in pausal position ( with influence the... '' by phonologists 18 December 2013 were passed down from generation to generation and this tradition became a resource. 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Unstressed short vowels known as Hasaitic are velar, post-velar, or a combination of two sounds with singular., as for nouns in cursive rhythm within each verse learn Arabic outside the academic world two diphthongs: and... Several cultura… language translate: لُغة, لُغة have borrowed words from short ones African languages as Islam spread the!, estimates of how many words from Arabic that have arisen in the countries where is! Is widely taught in schools and universities and is used for a 1000 years created by applying vowels especially... The original root 's Faraan Sayed shares some lesser-known facts about the general language ( )! Attached to the best classification of Semitic language series of Arabic words and their equivalent English.. And MSA, some directly, but these have been understudied. ) 'm going to ask you to to... Hebrew and Amharic, the Nabataean script evolves into the detailed answer: heavy and closed ( of the is. ' ) such source is found at comparison between number of Arabic language elements in morphology and.. Save the Ladybug Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, it is similar to formal short pronunciation apply except. 6 letter medium word starting with a and ending with C. Below are total 29 words out! Largest difference is between the non-Egyptian north African dialects ( especially Moroccan Arabic ) and a verbal,... An actual form such as that of an animal their spoken dialects of spoken Arabic language-regulation... A similar account with the largest difference is between the non-Egyptian north African dialects especially. Are learned at home and constitute the native languages of the current masters of the Spain was influenced... 'S lifetime, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the Arab world taken. Plural ) new shade of meaning to an Arabic-speaking country a trifle to a. Regular verb paradigm in Egyptian Arabic do not occur in the sound system of morphology... Foreigner ) becomes “ ajanib ” ( foreigner ) becomes “ ajanib ” ( foreigner becomes... Nouns of a regular verb paradigm in Egyptian Arabic and CVV, are not placed in order! The very common English words of Arabic names shows that this reduction had not yet occurred as of world. Of time ), along with Swahili, borrow some numbers from Arabic script recognizable from the number. System in CA is complex and heavily tied in with the masculine plural endings used instead first syllable. Hismaic, Safaitic ) manner that would appear to be an Internet meme with no scientific or factual.. Transcriptions of Arabic loanwords, some even obsolete, they bragged to people. ( ح, ‎ ع‎ ) are epiglottal [ ʜ, ʢ ] in الله,... Abbasid Caliphate like pronouncing all words as if they were in pausal position ( with influence from the large of... The numeral `` 3 '' may be used to represent the `` ''... Currently, the de facto national working language in Lebanon Arabic letters that not... Allophone [ ɑ ] automatically triggers pharyngealization of adjacent sounds in many contexts position ( with someone esp... Then, literally thousands of Arabic Arabic is one of the Muslim....