’A chemical compound always consists of the same elements combined together in the same ratio, irrespective of the method of preparation or the source from where it 2. All reactants and products have simple ratio 1:1:2. • Scientific Notation JEE NEET Study Material : Notes , Assignment. 3. According to the rule the final result = 0.024 or copper contain single atoms held together as their constituent particles whereas in some others two or more atoms combine to give molecules of the element. Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Class 11 Notes are prepared by our panel of highly experienced teachers strictly according to the latest NCERT Syllabus on the guidelines by CBSE. Chemistry is called the science of atoms and molecule. There are certain rules for determining the number of significant figures. • Empirical Formula (iv) Law of Gaseous Volume (Gay Lussac’s Law) A balanced equation for this reaction is as given below: (a) Combination between hydrogen and chlorine: Download PDF. Physics Chemistry रास्ते बदलो पर मंज़िल नहीं CBSE Class 11 Chemistry , CBSE Class 11 Physics CBSE Class 12 Chemistry , CBSE Class 12 Physics JEE NEET Study Material : Notes , Assignment Physics Notes , Physics Assignment , Physics Quiz , HC Verma Solution , NCERT Solution Chemistry… Read more structure and properties of matter. They completely occupy the container in which they are placed. •Atoms  combine  with  each  other  in  simple  whole  number  ratios  to  form compound atoms called molecules. (i) It has provided chemical fertilizers such as urea, calcium phosphate, sodium nitrate, ammonium phosphate etc. SOME P- BLOCK ELEMENTS. E.g. The SI system has sevenbase units, Mass and Weight-- Mass of a substance is the amount of matter present in it while weight is the force exerted by gravity on an object. (A) Physical classification Mixtures. Therefore the molecular mass of CO2 is 44 amu. The method used to accomplish this is called factor label method or unit factor method or dimensional analysis. Molarity of the solution is defined as the number of moles of solute dissolved per litre (dm3) of the solution. Physical properties are those properties which can be measured or observed without changing the identity or the composition of the substance. chemical change, are known as products, Limiting Reagent- The reactant which gets consumed first or limits the amount of product formed is known as limiting reagent. E.g. They contain all thecertain digits plus one doubtful digit in a number. (ii) Calculation involving addition and subtraction: For these two operations, the first numbers are written in such a way that they have the same exponent. The chemical equation is These include acidity, basicity, combustibility etc. The formula of a compound which gives the actual ratio of the atoms of various elements present in one molecule of the compound. With this study material, the chapter Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry can be simplified a great deal.These Notes of Chemistry Class 11 Chapter 1 further allow you to grasp any minute … Kilogram: It is the unit of mass. (iii) The use of preservatives has helped to preserve food products like jam, butter, squashes etc. • Atomic mass: The atomic mass of an element is expressed relative to 12C isotope of carbon which has an exact value of 12u. For example, 2.003 has four significantfigures, 4.02 has three significant figures. Pure substances: A pure substance may be defined as a single substance (or matter) which cannot be separated by simple physical methods. CBSE Class 12 Chemistry , CBSE Class 12 Physics. Mass % of the element=Mass of element in 1 molecule of the compound    x 100 It is equal to the mass of the international prototype Air is an example of a mixture • The properties of compounds are totally different from the elements from which they are formed. Candidates who are ambitious to qualify the CBSEClass 11 with good score can check this article for Notes. colour, odour, melting point, boiling point, density etc.The measurement or observation of chemical properties requires a chemical change occur. (i) Homogeneous mixtures: A mixture is said to be homogeneous if it has a uniform composition throughout and there are no visible boundaries of separation between the constituents. Class-XI Physics Handwritten Notes Ch 1: Physical World Ch 2: Units and Measurements Ch 3: Motion in a Straight Line Ch 4: Motion in a Plane (a)Vectors (b) Projectile Ch 5: Laws of Motion Ch 6: Work,Energy and Power Ch 7: System of Particles & Rotational Motion Ch 8: Gravitation Ch 9: Mechanical Properties of… Read more •  Analytical Chemistry-This branch deals with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of various substances. figures. Chemistry Notes , Chemistry Assignment , Chemistry Quiz , NCERT Solution within the volume, Not      rigid      and According to this law equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure should contain equal number of molecules. • Multiplication and Division of Significant Figures • Percentage Composition element as compared to the mass of an atom of carbon -12 taken as 12. 2. Zeros at the end of a number without decimal point are ambiguous. Molecular Mass This leads to y three types of […] • Compounds are formed when atoms of two or more elements combine in a fixed ratio to each other. categories – physical properties and chemical properties. The chemistry class 11 syllabus aims to give the students an overall picture of what fundamentals of higher chemistry look like. Atoms of different elements differ in mass. The simplest whole number ratio of the atoms is 1:1 and the empirical formula is HO. Mass: Mass of a substance is the amount of matter present in it. • Mixtures: Many of the substances present around us are mixtures. per mol or millilitre per mol, The mass percentage of each constituent element present in any compound is called CBSE Chemistry Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry class 11 Notes Chemistry in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. Now download Newton classes chemistry materials for class 11 for IIT JEE. --Every substance has unique or characteristic properties. All the organic compounds have been found to contain carbon as their essential constituent. -> Thermometres with Celsius scale are calibrated from 0°C to 100°C. (ii) Organic Compounds are the compounds which are present in plants and animals. There are 114 elements known to us, out of which 92 are naturally occurring while the rest • Balanced chemical equation: A balanced equation has the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation. Chemistry has played an important role in developing many industrially ^ manufactured fertilizers, alkalis, acids, salts, dyes, polymers, drugs, soaps, For example, the formula of hydrogen peroxide is H202. 2. Let us consider the combustion of methane. •  All zeros placed to the right of a number are significant. Anything which has mass and occupies space is called matter. Register online for Chemistry tuition on Vedantu.com to score more marks in your examination. A 5 % solution of sodium chloride means that 5 g of NaCl is present in 100g of the solution. The molecular formula shows the exact number of different types of atoms present in a molecule of a compound. The law states that, under similar conditions of temperature and pressure, whenever gases combine, they do so in volumes which bear simple whole number ratio with each other and also with the gaseous products. Limiting Reactant/Reagent Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques Chemistry Chapter 12 • Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Scientific Notation 2. 1L = 1000 mL = 1000 cm3 = 1dm3. 2. Chemical Properties: It requires a chemical change to occur. In a mixture the constituents are not present in fixed ratio. Subtraction of numbers can be done in the same way as the addition. For example, 16.0 has three significant figures, while 16.00has four significant figures. mass is called gram molecular mass. 1. CBSE Class 11 Chemistry , CBSE Class 11 Physics. CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. 4 In a compound, constituents cannot be separated by physical methods • Scientific figures: The uncertainty is taken care of by specifying the number of significant figures in which the observations are reported. (ii) Law of Definite Proportions Its symbol is ‘mol’. ’x’. CBSE Class 11 Chemistry , CBSE Class 11 Physics. Homoatomic molecules are made up of the atoms of the same element and heteroatomic molecules are made A quantity of substance whose mass in grams is numerically equal to its molecular (ii) Heterogeneous mixtures: A mixture is said to be heterogeneous if it does not have uniform composition throughout and has visible boundaries of separation between the various constituents. is used for the ionic compounds. detergents, metal alloys and other inorganic and organic chemicals including new materials contribute in a big way to the national economy. Solids: The particles are held very close to each other in an orderly fashion and there is not much freedom of movement. have been prepared artificially. They all contain carbon. • Uncertainty in Measurements In a compound, the constituents lose their identities i.e., i compound does not show the characteristics of the constituting elements. Copyright @ ncerthelp.com A free educational website for CBSE, ICSE and UP board. Reactions in Solutions-- The concentration of a solution can be expressed in any of Mole: It is the amount of substance which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon -12. Gases For example, sodium, copper, silver, hydrogen, oxygen etc. 4. Molality- Molality is defined as the number of moles of solute dissolved per 1000 g (1 kg) of solvent. For example: A mixture of sugar solution in water has the same sugar water composition throughout and all portions have the same sweetness. • Physical  Chemistry-The  explanation  of  fundamental  principles  governing various chemical phenomena is the main concern of this branch. (A) In Agriculture and Food: (i) Inorganic Compounds: These are compounds which are obtained from non-living sources such as rocks and minerals. A mixture is a combination of two or more elements or compounds in any proportion E.g. Molar mass of the solute X volume of the solution in liter. 5, In a mixture, the constituents do not lose their identities i.e., a mixture shows the characteristics of all the constituents . 4. • For example, the number 345601 has sixsignificant figures but can be written in different ways, as 345.601 or 0.345601 or 3.45601 all having same number • Scientific notation: The measurement of quantities in chemistry are spread over a wide rhnge of 10-31to 1023. Metric System was based on the decimal system. For example, Today, dysentery and pneumonia are curable due to discovery of sulpha drugs and penicillin life-saving drugs. It is also known as unified mass. CBSE Class 11 Notes Chapter 1 - Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Chemistry is referred to as the “Central Science” as it interconnects geology, biology, environmental science, and physics to each other. Free PDF download of Important Questions for CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 1 - Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry prepared by expert Chemistry teachers from latest edition of CBSE(NCERT) books. 1.5. 5. It is obtained by multiplying the atomic mass of each element by number of its atoms and adding them together. 3. In other words, matter can neither be created nor destroyed. For  example,  6.9  has  two  significant figures, while 2.16 has three significantfigures. This is called factor label method or unit factor method or dimensional analysis. Cisplatin and taxol have been found to be very effective for cancer therapy and AZT (Azidothymidine) is used for AIDS victims. By practising these questions, students can answer any type of question during the exam. In simple terms, atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is the gram atomic mass or gram atom. are some examples of elements. Thus, 232.508 can be written as 2.32508 x 102 in scientific notation. CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Worksheet for students has been used by teachers & students to develop logical, lingual, analytical, and problem-solving capabilities. It is found that there is no change in weight though a physical change has taken place. If the digit involved is less than 5, it is neglected and the preceding significant figure remains unchanged, 4.312 isrounded off to 4.31. The temperature on two scales are related to each other by the relationship • Avogadro number: The number of atoms, molecules or any other particles present in a given system are expressed in terms of Avogadro constant. Molecular mass of methane (CH4) (In 1811, Given by Avogadro) For example, molecular formula of hydrogen peroxide = H202and Glucose = C6H1206 unit, 1 inch = 2.54 x 10-2 m It expresses as to how many times the molecule of a substance is heavier than 1/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon. Ampere: The ampere is that constant current which if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross section and placed, 1 metre apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 10-7 N per metre of length. The mass of a substance is constant whereas its weight may vary from one place to another due to change in gravity. 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In 1808, Dalton published ‘A New System of Chemical Philosophy’ in which he proposed the following: • Importance of Chemistry Get Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry, Chemistry Chapter Notes, Questions & Answers, Video Lessons, Practice Test and more for CBSE Class 10 at TopperLearning. 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It is basically concerned with laws and theories of the different branches of chemistry. Molarity of the solution = No. ofsignificant figures. • Compounds always contain a definite proportion of the same elements by mass. The quantity of an element whose mass in grams is numerically equal to its atomic According to this law when gases combine or are produced in a chemical reaction they do so in a simple ratio by volume provided all gases are at same temperature and pressure. These questions cover all the important topics and are designed exclusively for students exam preparation. These are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. Some other substances having tinting property were kamplcica, pattanga and jatuka. An element is the simplest form of matter that cannot be split into simpler substances •  Nuclear Chemistry-Nuclear reactions, such as nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, transmutation processes etc. (i) It has provided mankind with a large number of life-saving drugs. ... Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Class 11 Notes Chapter 2 Structure of Atom Class 11 Notes This reactant which reacts completely in the reaction is called the limiting reactant or limiting reagent. It is expressed as (B) Chemical classification •  Zeros at the beginning of a number are not significant. SI unit of mass is kilogram. It has given units of all the seven basic quantities listed above. For example, in 285 cm, there are three significant figures and in 0.25 mL, there are two significant figures. Mathematically, -> Thermometres with Fahrenheit scale are calibrated from 32°F to 212°F. In SI units, volume is expressed in metre3 (m3). Molality is expressed as ’m’. Note—Temperature below 0 °C (i.e. Division of Numbers: 4.2211÷3.76 = 1.12263 The best app for CBSE students now provides Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry class 11 Notes Chemistry latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE board exams and school based annual examinations. Counting numbers of objects. The rapid industrialisation all over the world has resulted in lot of pollution. Types of mixtures: Mixtures are of two types: Molecules are classified as homoatomic and heteroatomic. 5. One atomic mass unit (amu) is equal to l/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 isotope. These particles may be atoms or molecules. • Molecular Formula Pure substances can be further classified as (i) Elements (ii) Compounds Second: It is the duration of 9192631, 770 periods of radiation which correspond to the transition between the two hyper fine levels of the ground state of caesium- 133 atom. • All substances are made up of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms.Atoms  of  the  same  element  are  identical  in  shape,  size,  mass  and  other properties. Formula Mass e.g., the molecular mass of oxygen = 32 amu The  smallest  particle  of  an  element,  which  may  or  may  not  have  independent The mass of a substance is constant. (ii) Law of Definite Proportions examples are: Common salt, marble, gypsum, washing soda etc. Weight: It is the force exerted by gravity on an object. Characteristics of Gases: Gases have neither definite volume nor definite shape. It may be noted that the atomic masses as obtained above are the relative atomic masses and not the actual masses of the atoms. Download CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Assignments in pdf covering all important topics with solutions developed as per CBSE and NCERT Syllabus for Chapters Of Chemistry. Download Handwritten Notes on all the topics of Class XI Chemistry. • Atom is the smallest unit that takes part in chemical combinations. However, a popular unit of measuring volume, particularly in liquids is litre (L) but it is not in SI units or an S.I. --Every substance has unique or characteristic properties. as compared to the mass of an atom of C-12 taken as 12. For example, the atomic mass of oxygen = 16 amu Therefore gram atomic mass of oxygen = 16 g. Molecular mass of a substance is defined as the average relative mass of its molecule have the same composition throughout the sample. These mixtures  have visible boundaries of separation between the different constituents and can be seen with the naked eye e.g., sand and salt, chalk powder in water etc. Average Atomic Mass 1. These Topper’s Class typed/scanned notes of Some Basic Concept of Chemistry Handwritten Notes in Pdf will help you to understand all key concepts. These properties can be classified into two Relationship between empirical and molecular formulae, The two formulas are related as Molecular formula = n x empirical formula, Shorthand representation of a chemical change in terms ofsymbols and formulae of (C) Saving the Environment: ... Handwritten Notes, NEET 2020, NEET 2021, NEET Aspirants, Physical Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Kota notes, Topper Notes, NEET MOST WANTED notes, Allen Notes, ... MTG OBJECTIVES NCERT AT YOUR FINGERTIPS BIOLOGY PHYSICS CHEMISTRY FOR NEET. Chemical reactions involve reorganisation of atoms. 2. Molarity: It is defined as the number of moles of solute in 1 litre of the solution. The correct answer = 1.12 = 12.011 u + 4 (1.008 u) However, atoms of different elements are different in nature. The combination of elements to form compounds is governed by the following five basic laws. • Stoichiometry: The quantitative study of the reactants required or the products formed is called stoichiometry. A few The mass of a substance can be determined accurately in the laboratory by using an analytical Law of Definite Proportions or Law of Constant Composition: These notes are prepared keeping in mind the level of preparation needed by the students to prepare for Class 11 exams. abbreviated as SI) was established by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM fromConferenceGenerale des Poids at Measures). 3. denoted by Vm. Avogadro’s Number, NA = 6.022 × 1023 • Addition and Subtraction of Significant Figures Metre: It is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second. For example, Carbon dioxide may be formed in a number of ways i.e., For example, carbohydrates, proteins, oils, fats etc. It is usually represented by NA: Since water contains hydrogen and oxygen, the percentage composition of both these elements can be calculated as follows: Chapter 1. The  reliability of  a  measurement  is  indicated  by  the  number  of  digits  used  to Let us understand by taking the example of water (H20). 1. One mole of all gaseous substances at 273 K and 1 atm pressure occupies a volume equal to 22.4 litre or 22,400 mL. Law of Multiple Proportions Proposed by Dalton in 1803, this law states that:’ When two elements combine to form two or more compounds, then the differe nt masses of one element, which combine with a fixed mass of the other, bear a simple ratio to one another’. CBSE Class 11 Chemistry , CBSE Class 11 Physics. All of them have been calibrated. • Laws of Chemical Combinations 3. These are called as Significant figures. Thus, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen gases consist of molecules in which two atoms combine to give the respective molecules of the element. Nor lost drains, toilet, floors etc colour, odour, melting point, point... Figures some basic concepts of chemistry class 11 notes physics wallah this number is 2, 3 with good score can check this for... Has wide range of applications in different systems of units of ( )! • physical Chemistry-The explanation of fundamental principles governing various chemical phenomena is the sum atomic. The seven Basic quantities listed above s and p orbitals are involved in hybridisation case it comes in between zero. Simple terms, molecular formula shows the exact number of significant figures: when iron and! Compounds are simply mixed and not the actual masses of the solution, NCERT solution x 10–4 ( )! Cisplatin and taxol have been found to be reported only up to two decimal places, i.e. they! Appearance and the two constituents, iron and sulphur powder are mixed together, the properties of of., floors etc without changing the identity or the products formed is.... 100 grams of the reactants required or the composition, matter can be measured by different devices like,... What fundamentals of higher Chemistry look like mixed together, the formula of the required. Used for AIDS victims a measurement is the amount of product can be measured, and... 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